1.Introduction

What is science?
Science is a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically -arranged and showing the operation of general laws.

Engineering Problems: 
1:The body might not be compatible with the artificial pancreas.
2:The artificial pancreas might not be able to reproduce the same enzymes required

3: The person maybe electrocuted if the wiring is not safe.





2.1: Problem being addressed

The body uses a simple sugar, called glucose, as its primary fuel. We get glucose from the food we eat. Both table sugar (sucrose) and other types of carbohydrates, such as starch (found in large quantities in pasta and other grain-rich foods), are broken down by our bodies to make glucose.
Because food can be broken down to make glucose, the level of glucose in a person's blood—which is commonly referred to as the blood glucose level—usually goes up after he or she eats.
Like most of the chemicals in your blood, glucose must be tightly controlled. The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas. When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it (as glycogen) to use for energy later (Lam.P, 2013). When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy. If blood glucose levels get too low, the pancreas may produce glucagon, a hormone that increases the levels. This process is how the pancreas and the hormones it produces are in charge of regulating blood glucose levels. Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people (Lam.E, 2013).

There are 2 types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer secretes sufficient insulin. If left untreated, the blood glucose levels of a person with type 1 diabetes could be dangerously high, which is a condition called hyperglycemia (Lam.E, 2013).
In type 2 diabetes,a person has insulin resistance, which means their body does not respond to insulin, or their pancreas does not make enough insulin.
Currently, a person with type 1 diabetes (and some with type 2 diabetes) must take insulin supplements to treat the condition (Lam.P, 2013)

In simpler terms:

Glucose is a simple sugar that is a raw material for tissue respiration. During cellular respiration, glucose is oxidised to release energy for cellular activities. Therefore, glucose is an important source of fuel for our body. We obtain glucose from food. When we digest food and assimilate the soluble molecules, the glucose levels in our body rise. In order to bring back this increase to equilibrium (homeostasis), insulin is needed. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans into the bloodstream where it will be transported to muscle and liver cells. (Lam.P, 2013). These cells have a high rate of cellular respiration and hence, need glucose to oxidise. For kids afflicted with Type 1 diabetes, the islets of Langerhans is not able to secrete sufficient insulin. This will cause adverse effects such as the weakening of the body and production of ketones (fats are oxidised) in urine which is lethal. Hence, children with Type 1 diabetes need to currently take insulin injections. However, we propose for a more efficient and convenient method of creating an artificial pancreas which will then replace the original one. The objective is to alleviate stress levels within children and to ensure that they have a balanced level of the insulin hormone and hence, glucose levels in their body (Lam.E, 2013).

What insulin does:
  1. Make cell surface membrane more permeable to increase uptake of glucose
  2. Insulin STIMULATES Liver cells and Muscle cells to store EXCESS glucose to glycogen
  3. During tissue respiration, oxidation of glucose is increased.




2.2: Goals

Our goals for this experiment

1)To detect the glucose level in the person who is using the artificial pancreas

2)Automatically dispense insulin into the body relative to the glucose level in the body
3) When the person has high glucose levels,the glucose sensor detects the high level of glucose and the pump runs, pumping insulin into the bloodstream . When the glucose level has stabilised, the pump stops.
4)In our project, we will assume that the glucose level in blood in represented by vinegar and the insulin is represented by baking soda

This is our diagram of our Experiment

(Science Buddies 2002)
Specific Requirements
1) Able to measure the glucose level
2) Able to inject ‘insulin’
3) Able to control the amount of insulin pumped into the body

2.2.1: Alternative Solutions

Design 1

Insulin pills/tablets
Insulin pills, also known as insulin tablets, remain at an early stage of clinical trials with several companies racing to establish this as a credible alternative to insulin injections.
Giving diabetes patients the chance to avoid the pain of needles has been the goal of many pharmaceutical companies for many years. But it cannot be reliable.(Diabetes Digital Media Ltd, 2015)





Problems:
It is difficult to ingest, It is a protein that degrades in the stomach and small intestine, making it almost impossible to design oral delivery which works.
The past has seen massive oral insulin efforts flop as in clinical trials, there have been no significant health risks associated with oral insulin compared to regularly administered insulin. including the inhalable insulin Exubera. (Diabetes Digital Media Ltd, 2015)

Design 2

Insulin injections

Insulin comes as a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to be injected subcutaneously (under the skin). Insulin is usually injected several times a day, and more than one type of insulin may be needed. There are many variables such as types of insulin to use, how much insulin to use and how often to inject insulin.Insulin controls high blood sugar but does not cure diabetes.
Insulin comes in vials, prefilled disposable dosing devices, and cartridges. The cartridges are designed to be placed in dosing pens.  There are 2 types of insulin, U-100 or U-500(AHFS® Consumer Medication Information, 2015).




Problems:
Low blood glucose levels can occur because you may be using different types of insulin.
Frequent injections mean you may develop resistant areas of the body where insulin will not absorb properly.

Design 3

Artificial pancreas



People who have diabetes usually need to keep close track of how much sugar is in their blood (called their blood glucose levels)by testing a drop of blood from a finger prick. If there is too much sugar in their blood, some diabetics take insulin shots to decrease it. However, it can also be dangerous to have too little sugar in a person's blood. Because of this, one area of intense research right now is on making an artificial pancreas, or basically a device that automatically adjusts a person's blood sugar levels. In this science project, you will build a circuit that has to face some of the same issues that an artificial pancreas does.So basically what it does is that it will sense the amount of sugar in your blood.So when the sugar in your blood is higher than the average level,it detects it and pumps in insulin to make sure that you would not get high blood pressure and lowers the amount of sugar in your blood.This device is useful to people who have diabetes and dislike taking injections and taking pills,because this device helps you track the amount o insulin and warn you when you have more than the average amount of sugar in your blood and alerts you. (American Diabetes Association, 2015)







Pros

  • The pump delivers insulin continuously throughout the day, causing fewer sudden highs and lows in blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin delivery is more accurate and precise.
  • There will be less needle sticks. You may have one injection (hook up) every three days versus 15-18 injections in a three-day period with injection therapy, according to O’Donnell.
  • Adjusting your own insulin allows a more flexible lifestyle.
  • Beneficial for children who are afraid of needles, etc

Cons

  • It is attached to your body (2 pumps) all day, reminding you and others that you have diabetes.
  • Pump supplies are expensive.
Best solution and reason

Artificial pancreas because it has less cons and more pros and more convenient.Furthermore it is able to detect the amount of sugar in your blood and pump in the insulin all by itself .Moreover,it is automatic,so it will detect the increase in sugar in your blood and automatically pump in insulin to maintain the healthy level of sugar in your blood.This is useful because you would not forget that you did not take the insulin tablets or even take the insulin pumps.You are even kept track by the artificial pancreas of the amount of sugar in your blood which is helpful and useful when you go to the doctor for your check up as this will tell the doctor the amount of sugar contents in your blood.

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